Wednesday, April 12, 2017

Anthrax Spores Trick Human Immune System

Bacillus anthracis, also known as Anthrax, has many methods for replicating and living inside a host. When it enters the host it is usually in the form of a dormant spore that later germinates into the living a reproducing bacterium. The host immune system is stimulated by the spores and responses are activated but they can not identify the bacterial form. For the immune system to identify the active form, TLR2 is used which is a cell surface receptor protein that attaches to the lipoproein that is found in the cell wall of the bacteria. In this study scientists have found that the RNA from the outer layer of anthrax is recognized by human macrophages through two receptors called TLR7 and TLR8. Because the spore is recognized first and in a different way, it is more difficult for the immune system to recognized the matured bacteria.

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